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Agricultura familiar, opción para producir más alimentos

Fecha: 
Lun, 2014-05-12

Este apartado incluye a 81% de los productores en México

Genera 70% del empleo rural y ayuda a preservar cultivos tradicionales

Matilde Pérez U.

 

Periódico La Jornada
Lunes 12 de mayo de 2014, p. 21

En el Año Internacional de la Agricultura Familiar, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación (FAO) destacó que ésta es la forma predominante en el sector de la producción de alimentos, la cual ayuda a preservar los tradicionales, contribuye a una dieta equilibrada y a salvaguardar la biodiversidad agrícola del mundo.

En México, 81 por ciento de los agricultores y 4.3 millones de unidades de producción están bajo esta característica; participan con 39 por ciento del valor de la producción agropecuaria y generan 70 por ciento del empleo rural. Para respaldar a los campesinos que practican la agricultura familiar y que se localizan en zonas marginadas se aplica el programa estratégico para la seguridad alimentaria (Pesa) en 24 estados, el cual cuenta con un presupuesto de 3 mil 230 millones de pesos.

En el mundo hay 570 millones de explotaciones agrícolas, de las cuales 500 millones están dentro del rubro de agricultura familiar y generan 56 por ciento de la producción global. En América del Norte y Central 83 por ciento de los productores son considerados en tierras agrícolas familiares, apenas 2 por ciento por debajo de Asia, donde 85 por ciento por ciento de las explotaciones son de agricultura familiar, la tasa más elevada del mundo.

Jim French, del programa de agronegocios y comercialización del Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación de la Agricultura, asentó que este tipo de productores puede ser parte importante de la solución en la demanda mundial de alimentos. En el foro internacional CropLife de América Latina, que se llevó a cabo en Ecuador, asentó que estos agricultores pueden ser parte importante de la solución en la demanda mundial de alimentos si combinan eficientemente los recursos productivos.

Es la actividad con mayor potencial para aumentar la oferta de alimentos y mejorar las condiciones de vida de la población rural más vulnerable. Hay experiencias exitosas que deben replicarse; en Culiapan, Guerrero, se han restablecido medios de producción con pequeños huertos de ciclos cortos. Y han desarrollado habilidades productivas y de gestión con metodologías participativas.

El Consejo Nacional de Organizaciones Campesinas sostuvo que 77 por ciento de las parcelas del país son menores a cinco hectáreas, pese a lo cual aportan un volumen importante de alimentos y pueden incrementarlo si cuentan con precios justos y remunerativos, financiamiento a tasas bajas de interés, insumos a precios accesibles, regulación de las importaciones que han dañado la producción nacional y el fomento del consumo de productos nacionales.

Las familias campesinas, destacó la agrupación, han logrado mantener un nivel importante de producción con estrategias de diversificación de ingresos, inversión de remesas y otros ingresos extra agrícolas. Los pueblos campesinos quieren seguir viviendo en el campo, conservar su cultura y modo de vida, acotó la organización conformada por seis agrupaciones.