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Brasil, EU y Argentina concentran producción mundial de transgénicos

Fecha: 
Lun, 2014-07-07

Presentan especialistas evaluación crítica a 30 años del inicio de su cultivo

La resolución de suspender en México proceso de autorización de permisos para sembrar maíz genéticamente modificado ha recibido 70 impugnaciones del mismo gobierno: GEA

Angélica Enciso L.
 
Periódico La Jornada
Lunes 7 de julio de 2014, p. 37

A tres décadas de que dio inicio el cultivo de transgénicos en el mundo, la producción se concentra en Estados Unidos, Brasil y Argentina. En este periodo, también se centralizó el control de las semillas en tan sólo tres empresas: Dupont, Syngenta y Monsanto, pero esta última es la que controla el mercado mundial de los granos.

Así lo señala 30 años de plantas genéticamente modificadas. 20 años de cultivo comercial en Estados Unidos, una evaluación crítica, editada por la Fundación Henrich Böll, la cual explica que el avance de este cultivo en la Unión Europea ha sido limitado, mientras Estados Unidos ha tenido un alcance mayor impulsado por los intereses económicos de empresas como Monsanto.

Agrega que en ese país las plantas genéticamente modificadas representan 90 por ciento de los cultivos de algodón, soya y maíz. Esto ocurre aunque los precios de las semillas aumentan y las empresas envían detectives para investigar posibles violaciones a patentes. Las compañías patentaron las semillas transgénicas porque les introdujeron un gen de otra especie que serviría para reducir el uso de herbicidas.

El texto escrito por Christoph Then explica que las tecnologías agrícolas están llevando a los agricultores a una sistematización de la producción que forzará a la agricultura a una mayor industrialización y producirá incrementos masivos de los costos de semillas, sin que esto redunde en un incremento sustancial en rendimientos o ahorros significativos en la cantidad de aplicaciones requeridas.

La concentración del mercado de semillas pasó de 7 mil empresas a 10,no ocurre tal concentración en ningún otro rubro, ya que de esas compañías Monsanto tiene 80 por ciento del mercado, sólo Microsoft tiene algo similar, explicó Silvia Ribeiro en la presentación del documento en Casa Lamm el jueves pasado. Agregó que 85 por ciento del cultivo de organismos genéticamente modificados es resistente a herbicidas, químicos que estas mismas empresas producen.

Por su parte, Catherine Marielle, del Grupo de Estudios Ambientales (GEA), detalló que en México van 16 años de lucha en contra de la introducción de maíz transgénico, para lo cual diferentes organizaciones han recurrido en varias ocasiones a denuncias populares ante la Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente y a la Comisión de Cooperación Ambiental.

Fue hasta 2013, cuando un juez determinó suspender la autorización de permisos de cultivo de maíz transgénico. Sin embargo, esta resolución suma 70 impugnaciones de las productoras de transgénicos y del gobierno, el cual con recursos públicos litiga en favor de ellas.

Alejandro Calvillo, de El poder del Consumidor, refirió que no se destinan fondos públicos para conocer los efectos del consumo de transgénicos en la salud.Esto habla del poder de las empresas, señaló. Consideró que no se debería autorizar el consumo de ningún producto hasta que se demuestre que no causa daño, pero este principio precautorio se aplica a la inversa.”

El documento recomienda que la Unión Europea se desista del cultivo comercial de plantas herbicidas resistentes, establecer medidas preventivas para proteger a las semillas de la contaminación para asegurar la producción de granos no transgénicos, intensificar el monitoreo de los efectos a largo plazo sobre la salud y el medio ambiente, y avanzar en el etiquetado de productos derivados de animales alimentados con transgénicos.