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Desplazados por el conflicto armado de 1994, dos décadas ignorados por el gobierno

Fecha: 
Jue, 2015-02-19
El desplazamiento forzado se incrementa en Chiapas, ante la imposibilidad de solucionar por la vía pacífica las problemáticas sociales. Foto: Elizabeth Ruiz

El desplazamiento forzado se incrementa en Chiapas, ante la imposibilidad de solucionar por la vía pacífica las problemáticas sociales. En la imagen niños desplazados de Los Altos de Chiapas. Foto: Elizabeth Ruiz

 

Al menos 25 mil indígenas de las zona norte y selva de Chiapas, desplazados por el conflicto armado de 1994, han sido ignorados por los gobierno federal y de Chiapas. Actualmente, siguen haciendo antesala en las oficinas gubernamentales, en espera de encontrar la vía para que les restituyan sus tierras e indemnicen por las pérdidas.

En una carpeta, cargan como un tesoro la lista detallada de las vacas, los toros, los árboles de frutales, las matas de café, las casas y hasta las personas que perdieron luego que el 1 de enero de 1994 inició una gran movilización social, con la declaración de guerra que el Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN) hiciera al gobierno mexicano.

Atrapados entre dos fuegos, miles de familias tuvieron que dejar sus lugares de origen. Dos décadas después, al menos 25 mil personas siguen desplazadas, sin posibilidad de retorno; mientras que otros que han vuelto, buscan desesperadamente la indemnización por los bienes perdidos.

Este 18 de febrero habían acordado una audiencia en la capital de Chiapas, con representantes de ambos gobiernos. Nuevamente fueron ignorados.

Julián Méndez Córdova, de Ocosingo; Manuel Pérez García y Sebastián Vázquez Méndez, de Tila; Conrado Lorenzo Cruz, de Altamirano; Fernando Sánchez López, de Palenque; acompañados de una docena más de indígenas de las etnias chol y tseltal, esperaron durante dos días una audiencia que no llegó.

 

 

Apostarle al desgaste

Junto con la lisa detallada de los bienes perdidos y el censo de personas afectadas, las y los desplazados cargan consigo decenas de “acuerdos y minutas de trabajo”, donde primero un gobierno, luego otro y luego otro”, se han comprometido a dar solución a sus demandas.

“El problema ahora es que el gobernador de Manuel Velasco no ha querido ni recibirnos. Sus representantes nos dijeron que viniéramos este 18 de febrero, pero nuevamente nos dejaron esperando”, explicó la comisión de desplazados, quienes en cada visita que realizan a la capital deben invertir los recursos que ya no tienen.

“La comisión que venimos de Ocosingo, tuvimos que gastar 2,600 pesos. Los desplazados de Ocosingo vivimos en casas rentadas, trabajamos de albañiles o nos vamos de migrantes para sostener a nuestras familias, así que no es poco el que nos dejen plantados y nos ignoren”, explicó Julián Méndez Córdova.

“Nos dijeron que viniéramos, que nos iban a dar una solución, que metiéramos oficios de petición a la Secretaría del Campo, al Registro Agrario, a la Secretaría de Gobierno, que planteáramos proyectos, propuestas efectivas… ya llevamos más de cien oficios y ellos (el Estado mexicano), solo le apuesta al desgaste, a administrar nuestro tiempo, a engañarnos, nos andan peloteando de dependencia en dependencia”, lamenta Manuel Pérez García.

 

 

70% de desplazados no ha recibido atención

El Programa de la Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) realizó en el año 2010 un diagnóstico sobre el desplazamiento forzado en Chiapas. Encontró que dentro de los grupos de desplazados destacan las 25,000 personas que se vieron obligadas a abandonar sus comunidades luego del alzamiento armado del Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN).Se trata tanto de simpatizantes del grupo insurgente, como de opositores al mismo.

El “Estudio sobre los desplazados por el Conflicto Armado en Chiapas”, que realizaron especialistas, y constituye el acercamiento más cercano a un diagnóstico, señala que “a 18 años del inicio del conflicto entre el EZLN y el gobierno federal, se estima que alrededor de 70% de los desplazados no ha recibido atención por parte de autoridades estatales y federales”.

La comisión de desplazados regresó este viernes 19 a los lugares donde ahora permanecen. Advierten que insistirán en su demanda. “Nuestras tierras, nuestro ganado, nuestros bienes, es el futuro de nuestros hijos. Lo tenemos que recuperar”, señalaron.

En Chiapas una de cada ocho personas viven en situación de desplazamiento forzado, la mayoría de ellas por situaciones de violencia que viven en sus comunidades.