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Determinará el Poder Judicial si procede el cultivo de maíz transgénico en México

Fecha: 
Jue, 2015-04-16

Primera vez en el mundo que el tema se dirime en esa instancia

Angélica Enciso L.
 
Periódico La Jornada
Jueves 16 de abril de 2015, p. 36

El Poder Judicial juzgará si es procedente el cultivo de maíz transgénico en México –el primer caso de este tipo en el mundo–, luego de 21 meses en que organizaciones y ciudadanos han defendido en tribunales federales la demanda de la acción colectiva contra la siembra de esos productos.

En 2013, decenas de ciudadanos, 53 académicos y 26 organismos presentaron la demanda, en la que argumentaron que la siembra de maíz transgénico en el país vulnera derechos de los mexicanos, como utilizar las razas nativas y la diversidad biológica, así como a la salud y la alimentación, incluida la comida nacional, que es patrimonio inmaterial de la humanidad, explicó Adelita San Vicente, de Semillas de Vida.

Ahora, los tribunales definirán si el cultivo de maíz genéticamente modificado dañará el derecho colectivo de los mexicanos a la diversidad biológica; el tema central será el derecho humano a la diversidad de maíces nativos, indicó.

Los promotores de la acción colectiva enfrentaron en 17 instancias decenas de amparos y diferentes recursos judiciales del gobierno federal y de trasnacionales, como Monsanto, contra la demanda y la medida precautoria de un juez que suspendió desde el principio el proceso de autorización de permisos de siembra experimental, piloto y comercial de maíz transgénico, apuntó en conferencia de prensa el abogado René Sánchez Galindo, de la asociación Colectivas.

Ahora que comienza el juicio, los tribunales determinarán si se mantiene la suspensión del cultivo, y se espera la respuesta a la demanda por parte de las secretarías de Medio Ambiente y de Agricultura, así como de las empresas, explicó San Vicente, también representante de la colectividad que presentó la querella. Se prevé que la sentencia definitiva señale que la siembra comercial de maíz transgénico dañará el derecho humano a la diversidad biológica y se impida su siembra, dijo.

Sánchez Galindo detalló que es la primera vez que un poder judicial en el mundo juzgará el cultivo de maíz transgénico, y en 3 millones de hectáreas hay 83 solicitudes detenidas de Monsanto, Pioneer Dupont, Syngenta, Dow y PH.

Precisó que uno de los principales argumentos que presentaron las empresas contra la acción colectiva de las organizaciones fue cuestionar la representación de la persona que está al frente de la demanda; acusaron de falta de ética al magistrado que determinó la medida precautoria, y señalaron que la colectividad debía pedir reparación del daño.

Sostuvo que entre las irregularidades que los demandantes han encontrado hay evidencia documentada de que las autorizaciones de la Comisión Federal para la Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios para los cultivos trasgénicos están basadas sólo en la información de las empresas solicitantes.

Por su parte, Emiliano Juárez, del grupo Vicente Guerrero, de Tlaxcala, sostuvo que aunque ese estado fue declarado libre de transgénicos, está en riesgo porque el maíz es un cultivo de polinización abierta, es decir, que su polen se puede mover a largas distancias y, en el caso del transgénico, el peligro es la contaminación.