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"El planeta ante una crisis que pone en riesgo" a la humanidad

Fecha: 
Mié, 2014-06-04

Realizan en la UNAM foro con motivo del Día Mundial del Medio Ambiente

El calentamiento global, la alta demanda de alimentos y de energía, así como anteponer el desarrollo económico al social y al ecológico, algunas de las causas, señalan especialistas
Foto
La demanda de energía cada vez es más alta, y esto ha generado grandes transformaciones en los ecosistemas y en los ciclos físicos y biogeoquímicos a escala global y local, destacan científicos. En la imagen, nubes cargadas de granizo se ciernen sobre NebraskaFoto Ap

 

Emir Olivares Alonso

Periódico La Jornada

Miércoles 4 de junio de 2014, p. 2

El planeta enfrenta una trágica situación ambiental. El calentamiento global, la alta demanda de alimentos y de energía, así como anteponer el desarrollo económico al social y al ecológico han generado que esté en una crisis que puede poner en riesgo la permanencia de la especie humana, señalaron especialistas de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).

En el foro Medio ambiente y alternativas, que se realizó ayer en el Palacio de Minería por el Día Mundial del Medio Ambiente, que cada año se celebra el 3 de junio, Mireya Imaz Gispert, directora del Programa Universitario del Medio Ambiente, afirmó que los efectos de la degradación ambiental han comenzado a pasar factura en la salud humana.

Dijo que más de 2 millones de personas mueren cada año en el planeta por causas relacionadas con la contaminación atmosférica, y que el consumo de agua contaminada está entre las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad.

Lamentó que aun cuando la humanidad, al igual que el resto de las especies, está sujeta a las mismas leyes y fuerzas de la naturaleza, se ha apropiado de casi dos terceras partes de la productividad primaria del orbe.

A ello se debe sumar que la demanda de energía cada vez es más alta, y esto ha generado grandes transformaciones en los ecosistemas y en los ciclos físicos y biogeoquímicos a escala global y local.

Dijo que los cálculos del Panel Intergubernamental para Cambio Climático señalan que para 2100 la temperatura de la superficie planetaria se incrementaría entre 3.7 y 7.8 grados centígrados, es decir, tres grados más del peor escenario posible estimado por ese grupo en su reporte de 1990.

Pero no es necesario esperar un siglo para vivir los efectos del calentamiento del planeta. Un reporte de la NASA, publicado el 12 de mayo pasado, señala que la contracción de los glaciares en la Antártida occidental ya cruzó el punto de quiebre y éste ahora es irreversible e imparable.

César Domínguez Pérez-Tejada, director del Instituto de Ecología, se refirió a la deforestación territorial. Lamentó que en el país se pierdan 400 mil hectáreas anuales de diversos tipos de territorio por esa causa, extensión equivalente a la Selva Lacandona, en Chiapas.

Por otro lado, agregó: Privilegiar sólo el desarrollo económico ha conducido al mundo a la pérdida y disminución de los servicios ambientales y del bienestar social.

Por el contrario, subrayó que para contrarrestar esa problemática debería existir un equilibrio entre estos tres ámbitos, pero ello no corresponde exclusivamente a los tomadores de decisión y a los científicos que trabajan el tema, sino a la sociedad en su conjunto.

Gian Carlo Delgado, del Centro de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias en Ciencias y Humanidades, detalló que en los años recientes el consumo de energía a escala global se ha incrementado en 70 por ciento, y eso no ha generado una mejora sustancial en las condiciones de vida.

Las condiciones de afectación ambiental han generado un sobregiroque hoy se expresa en que para mantener el actual consumo de la especie humana, se necesita la superficie total de la Tierra, más otra mitad.

Los especialistas coincidieron en que debe haber límites para el desarrollo social y económico, los cuales deben restringirse por la capacidad de los sistemas del planeta para resistir y recuperarse de los impactos y perturbaciones causados por la misma actividad humana.