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El TLCAN afectó a agricultores de México, Estados Unidos y Canadá, sostiene experta

Fecha: 
Vie, 2014-02-14

En 20 años aumentó la renta de la tierra y se concentró la producción en grandes empresas

Matilde Pérez U.
 
Periódico La Jornada
Viernes 14 de febrero de 2014, p. 18

En Estados Unidos, Canadá y México el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) trajo el incremento de la renta de la tierra, el desplazamiento de los pequeños y medianos agricultores y la concentración de la producción agrícola y pecuaria en grandes productores y empresas.

En Canadá desaparecen 30 pequeñas granjas anualmente; en Estados Unidos, 80 por ciento de la producción de carne la controlan cuatro compañías, y en México se importa 45 por ciento de los alimentos que demanda la población.

Karen Hansen, del Instituto de Política Agrícola (IATP, por sus siglas en inglés) de Estados Unidos, expuso que en 20 años del TLCAN desaparecieron cerca de dos millones de pequeños granjeros; las familias que continúan con la actividad están en una situación cada vez más difícil.

“Cada día los grandes agricultores ejercen mayor presión sobre terrenos marginales para incrementar su producción de maíz, y los pequeños –que apenas son una tercera parte del total– luchan para lograr una producción más sustentable y buscan alternativas para tener vínculos más directos con los consumidores”, abundó.

Bancarrota

“Es cierto que los impactos del TLCAN han sido más fuertes para México, pero tampoco han sido positivos para los granjeros estadunidenses, pues se quitaron varios soportes para la pequeña agricultura. El gobierno les dijo que debían aumentar la producción y exportar para solucionar sus problemas. Varios invirtieron mucho y cayeron en bancarrota.

El gobierno tuvo que aplicar programas de emergencia, pero no han sido efectivos. Siguen desapareciendo los productores de pequeña y mediana escala, comentó en breve entrevista tras su visita al país para participar en el Foro Trinacional Campesino.

A pocos días de que se reúnan en Toluca, estado de México, los presidentes de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, y de México, Enrique Peña Nieto, y el primer ministro de Canadá, Stephen Harper, como parte de la conmemoración de los 20 años del TLCAN, la integrante del IATP apuntó que la pretensión de los mandatarios esextender los compromisos del acuerdo comercial, pero las relaciones macroeconómicas no sirven a la mayoría de la gente; en Estados Unidos aumentó la pobreza, mucha gente está desesperada.

En Canadá, apuntó Dominique Bernier, de Amigos de la Tierra, la industrialización de la agricultura provocó la desaparición de muchas pequeñas unidades de producción; aumentó la  renta de la tierra y muchas fincas (de grandes superficies) son de dueños de multinacionales; avanza el uso de las semillas transgénicas; por ejemplo, 80 por ciento de la semilla de maíz y más de 50 por ciento de la soya es genéticamente modificada.

Ante ello, algunos pequeños agricultores se dedican a los cultivos biointensivos y se han sumado al proyecto de adopta una finca familiar: los ciudadanos compran por adelantado parte de las cosechas y los productores entregan cada semana una canasta de productos. Participan 500 pequeñas granjas en Quebec, el modelo se expande; es una alternativa marginal, pero productiva, rentable y da una buena calidad de vida a los campesinos.