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Hay que actualizar ley sobre evaluación ambiental

Fecha: 
Jue, 2014-02-13

Un campo de golf donde antes hubo manglar emite 5 mil toneladas de carbono

Angélica Enciso L.
 
Periódico La Jornada
Jueves 13 de febrero de 2014, p. 39

La legislación ambiental debe actualizarse para incluir los análisis de riesgo, normar la consulta pública y que sean especialistas los que hagan las evaluaciones de impacto ambiental, porque no es posible que técnicos de la Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (Semarnat) sin especialidad en hidrología o biodiversidad tomen decisiones sobre obras de gran trascendencia como las presas, señaló Exequiel Ezcurra, presidente del Consejo Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas.

Sostuvo que existen conflictos entre los intereses privados de corto plazo, que para obtener un beneficio limitado talan manglares para hacer campos de golf, a pesar de que una hectárea de esta vegetación aporta beneficios económicos de hasta 200 mil dólares al año.

Otro ejemplo de que el interés público se subordina al particular, dijo, es que por cuarta ocasión se entregó a la Semarnat la manifestación de impacto ambiental de la explotación minera Los Cardones, aunque con otros nombres se presentó antes, y que entre sus actividades tendrá el traslado de miles de toneladas de cianuro a través de la ciudad de La Paz, que pondría en riesgo a su población.

Al participar en la tercera mesa redonda para el Fortalecimiento de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas de México, sostuvo que la ley da el mismo tiempo para evaluar una presa que un pequeño complejo hotelero.

Un ejemplo es el proyecto de la Comisión Federal de Electricidad de la presa Las Cruces, en Nayarit, que afectará un sistema de manglares.

Los grandes proyectos con impactos irreversibles, deberían discutirse en tiempos y plazos distintos, sostuvo, y explicó que los beneficios que aportan los ecosistemas son altos. Sobre los manglares, estudios revelaron que cada hectárea aporta 37 mil dólares al año por ser hábitat de especies como el mero, camarón o lisa.

Conservar las lagunas aporta beneficios a la sociedad

Precisó que por una hectárea de mangle que captura carbono, se obtienen hasta 200 mil dólares al año, de acuerdo con el actual mercado que existe sobre este contaminante. Si una hectárea de manglar se convierte en campo de golf, se emiten 5 mil toneladas de carbono a la atmósfera, apuntó.

Los servicios de los ecosistemas benefician a la sociedad y su destrucción favorece a los inversionistas privados. Además, se ha encontrado que la conservación de las lagunas costeras del norte del país aportan beneficios a la observación de aves en Estados Unidos y Canadá.

Cada kilómetro cuadrado de lagunas costeras saludables genera unos mil 600 dólares en derechos de caza en el país vecino y una cantidad similar de otros beneficios económicos de los cazadores.