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Incumple el Estado mexicano tratados sobre derechos indígenas: Stavenhagen

Fecha: 
Mié, 2014-06-25

La ley minera y la reforma energética violan garantías de comunidades, afirma

Con las concesiones, el gobierno prácticamente regala las tierras a los empresarios, sostiene

Juan Carlos G. Partida

Corresponsal

Periódico La Jornada
Miércoles 25 de junio de 2014, p. 6

Guadalajara, Jal., 24 de junio.

Con la ley de minería y la reforma energética el Estado mexicano ha dado la espalda a los tratados internacionales en materia de derechos de las comunidades indígenas y con ello a la Constitución de México, afirmó el antropólogo Rodolfo Stavenhagen durante un foro celebrado en el Congreso de Jalisco, que tiene como propósito enriquecer la iniciativa que se presentará para reformar la ley indígena estatal.

El ex relator de la Organización de Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos de los Pueblos Indígenas y maestro emérito de El Colegio de México afirmó que en el artículo primero de la Constitución se reconoce el uso y disfrute de los recursos naturales de quienes habitan las comunidades indígenas, lo cual es letra muerta ante el saqueo constante y las concesiones mineras que se han otorgado, sobre todo desde el año 2000, sin importar su grave impacto ambiental.

Los artículos primero y segundo constitucionales reconocen el derecho de la libre determinación y autonomía de los pueblos indígenas, que no se aplica porque quizás nadie sabe cómo hacerlo. Muchos pueblos lo proclaman y lo exigen, pero ha faltado diálogo e interés de las autoridades federales para que sea una realidad, dijo Stavenhagen ante un auditorio que además de legisladores reunió a representantes de las comunidades wixaritari, nahuas y cocas del norte, sur y centro del estado, respectivamente.

El especialista explicó que, en contra del mandato constitucional, el Estado mexicano hizo lo contrario con la ley minera y la reforma energética, al grado de que las leyes secundarias que se discuten adquieren mayor relevancia que la Carta Magna que rige al país.

Recordó que en 2014 se cumplieron 20 años del surgimiento del Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional y de la entrada en vigor del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, pero dos décadas después de ambos sucesos “ni el TLCAN ha cumplido sus compromisos ni han desaparecido las condiciones de marginación para los indígenas.

Debe plantearse la necesidad de reabrir el diálogo entre los pueblos indígenas y el Estado mexicano, afirmó, tras recordar que la discusión fue suspendida en 1996 tras las reuniones y acuerdos en San Andrés Larráinzar, Chiapas, y manifestó estar consciente de que ante las condiciones políticas que vive el país será difícil restablecerlo.

Afirmó que con las concesiones mineras el gobierno federal prácticamente regala las tierras y sostuvo que la presión de los particulares por obtener los recursos naturales de las comunidades indígenas es una neocolonización del territorio de los pueblos originarios, lo cual provoca en estos momentos docenas de conflictos en todo el país.

Además, quienes defienden su tierra son criminalizados y se da el desplazamiento de comunidades, además de que se provocan contaminación y daños a la salud por los residuos tóxicos de la actividad minera. Es necesario asegurar el cumplimiento de normas que existen pero no se aplican, agregó.

Convocado por la Comisión de Asuntos Indígenas del Congreso del Estado, el foro denominado Los pueblos y las comunidades indígenas como sujetos de derecho público incluyó tres mesas de trabajo con temas sobre esa materia, así como los derechos a la cultura y a la consulta.