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La bandera del diálogo justificó la intromisión oficial en Chiapas

Fecha: 
Jue, 2014-05-22

La labor redundó en el reclutamiento de antizapatistas

Corriente de estudios académicos ignoró las condiciones de guerra

Hermann Bellinghausen

 

Periódico La Jornada
Viernes 23 de mayo de 2014, p. 19

San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chis., 22 de mayo.

La trama de intromisiones gubernamentales en los territorios autónomos rebeldes, presentadas como búsqueda bien intencionada de diálogo con las autoridades civiles o militares del EZLN, ramificó no sólo en el activo reclutamiento clientelar de indígenas en alguna medida desafectos al zapatismo, sino también en una corriente de estudios académicos de presunta neutralidad, que seguían los pasos en este terreno de las agencias gubernamentales.

Es ciertamente legítimo y de gran interés conocer las experiencias colectivas de un crisol social tan móvil e intenso como los actuales pueblos indígenas de Chiapas. Pero no existe candor. Concretamente en las cañadas tojolabales se ha generado un deterioro en las relaciones de los pueblos que condujo a la agresión reciente (quedó demostrado que nunca huboenfrentamiento) contra el caracolzapatista de La Realidad. Todos los caminos llevan a las antes olvidadas cañadas tojolabales.

Ya durante los diálogos de San Andrés (1995-1996) aparece al lado del entonces senador panista de la Cocopa Luis H. Álvarez el político chiapaneco Amando Aguilar Guillén, oriundo de Las Margaritas, de trayectoria priísta. Para cuando en el nuevo milenio el PAN gobierne el país y Álvarez sea su comisionado para la paz en Chiapas, Aguilar será uno de sus asesores que lo guíen a Comitán y Las Margaritas, para encontrarse con dirigentes de diversos grupos locales y no pocas veces falsoscomandantes zapatistas.

A partir de 2001, cuando gobierna Chiapas Pablo Salazar Mendiguchía, el equipo de Álvarez consolida los contactos con las organizaciones sociales de la región tojolabal y define estrategias para entrar en las comunidades zapatistas con la bandera de buscar diálogo con la elusiva comandancia zapatista, pero cuyo resultado concreto será el reclutamiento de antizapatistas, zapatistasarrepentidos o sedicentes bases rebeldes, para recibir obras, proyectos y servicios a través de todos los programas gubernamentales. Por lo visto uno de los trámites ha sido pertenecer a algún partido político. Cualquiera en realidad. Eso explica que sus filiaciones resulten cambiantes y difusas.

Simultáneo en el tiempo y en el espacio, se desarrolla un proyecto académico en las cañadas tojolabales a cargo de Marco Estrada Saavedra, quien publica en 2006 La comunidad armada rebelde y el EZLN, esmerado en dar voz a las mismas organizaciones y comunidades que por entonces eran bombardeadas por la intromisión gubernamental en continuo desafío a la autonomía.

Se gesta un proyecto ambicioso, al iniciar el gobierno de Felipe Calderón y quedar Álvarez al frente de la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas (CDI): la programada, y a la postre fallida edición de una biblioteca, incialmente de 20 volúmenes, coeditada por el Congreso de la Unión, el gobierno de Chiapas y El Colegio de México, titulada Chiapas hoy. La entonces diputada panista y presidenta de la Cocopa Martha Cecilia Díaz Gordillo impulsa desde 2007 el proyecto, a cargo de Estrada Saavedra y el reconocido historiador Juan Pedro Viqueira, ya de tiempo atrás asesor, no necesariamente formal al principio, de Luis H. Álvarez.

No hubo biblioteca, pero se generó una difundida actividad académica en torno a las regiones zapatistas, sus historias, sus diferencias políticas y en ocasiones religiosas, con la participación de investigadores de diversas instituciones académicas de Chiapas y el Distrito Federal. Su resultado concreto fue Los indígenas de Chiapas y la rebelión zapatista: microhistorias políticas (El Colegio de México, 2010).

En apenas disimulada consonancia con los intereses de la CDI y la intención de Álvarez de cumplir con sus promesas en esos márgenes del zapatismo que frecuentó como comisionado, el libro recorre nuevamente caminos que desembocarían el pasado 2 de mayo en La Realidad, cuando los seguidores-receptores de Luis H. Álvarez conspirarían para emboscar a las bases zapatistas y asesinarían a Galeano.

El nuevo volumen recoge lamicrohistoria de los tojolabales de Buena Vista Pachán, Visiones, revisiones y divisiones, por Estrada Saavedra, y el titulado En los márgenes del zapatismo: Veracruz y Saltillo, dos poblados tojolabales, de José Luis Escalona Victoria. Sumados a los trabajos en La Garrucha (Ocosingo), San Andrés Larráinzar, El Limar (Tila) y Huitiupán, despliegan una suerte de censo de las oposiciones locales al zapatismo desde sus márgenes, extrañamente sin considerar las condiciones de guerra de baja intensidad imperantes, dando un trato aséptico a un escenario donde rige la ley federal de la guerra, en una cadena de operaciones que nunca cesan, como dijera Carlos Montemayor, y que estaban sucediendo bajo las narices de los microhistoriadores sin que estos lo consideraran relevante, no obstante que su mapa coincidía exactamente con el de la contrainsurgencia.