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  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /home2/maderas/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 607.
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  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /home2/maderas/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc on line 24.
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  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit(&$form, &$form_state) in /home2/maderas/public_html/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 134.
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  • strict warning: Declaration of date_handler_field_multiple::pre_render() should be compatible with content_handler_field_multiple::pre_render($values) in /home2/maderas/public_html/sites/all/modules/date/date/date_handler_field_multiple.inc on line 185.

Permitirán a trasnacionales vulnerar "comunidades indígenas"

Fecha: 
Mar, 2014-09-23

Reformas de Peña Nieto, grave riesgo para los derechos humanos, dice la titular del Prodesc

Emir Olivares Alonso
 
Periódico La Jornada
Martes 23 de septiembre de 2014, p. 7

La mexicana Alejandra Ancheita, directora de la organización Proyecto de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales (Prodesc), consideró queya es un triunfo aparecer en la terna de candidatos a ganar el premio Martin Ennals, considerado el Nobel de los derechos humanos.

Además, ser candidata al galardón implica gran responsabilidad, debido a la situación de riesgo en la que los defensores de las garantías fundamentales realizan su labor en México. Realidad que –asegura– debe ser visibilizada a escala global.

Junto a la mexicana, también han sido nominados Adilur Rahman Khan, abogado en pro de las garantías fundamentales de Bangladesh, y la activista china Cao Shunli, quien murió el pasado 14 de marzo tras seis meses de detención. Este premio es entregado por 10 de las organizaciones defensoras de los derechos humanos más importantes del mundo, entre ellas Amnistía Internacional (AI), Human Rights Watch, Organización Mundial contra la Tortura, Federación Internacional de Derechos Humanos y Human Rights First. Destacadas personalidades han recibido el premio, pero el único mexicano que lo ha ganado es el fallecido obispo emérito de San Cristóbal de las Casas, Samuel Ruiz.

Ancheita, defensora de los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales, señala que las recientes reformas estructurales promovidas por el titular del Ejecutivo federal, Enrique Peña Nieto, y aprobadas por el Congreso de la Unión, implicarángrave riesgo para estas garantías, pues el Estado permitirá que las empresas trasnacionales puedan vulnerar las garantías de cientos de comunidades, sobre todo indígenas y ejidales.

En entrevista con La Jornada, a propósito de su nominación al premio que se entregará el 7 de octubre en Ginebra, Suiza, la activista enfatiza en la obligación internacional de México en defender y garantizar los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales, establecidos en la Convención Internacional de Naciones Unidas, entre los que están el derecho a la alimentación, al trabajo, a la educación, entre otros.

EL TLCAN, origen del abuso

Para la directora de Prodesc, este riesgo tiene origen en la firma del Tratado de Libre Comercio para América del Norte (TLCAN), que comenzó a operar el 1º de enero de 1994, y se ha concretado con la aprobación de las reformas promovidas por Peña Nieto.

La vulneración de estos derechos –dice– no son omisiones; se trata de una política de Estado: El gobierno tiene dentro de sus funciones más importantes la protección, respeto y garantía de los derechos humanos, además, debe promoverlos y velar para que sean progresivos, por lo que las políticas económicas y sociales que se vayan definiendo desde las esferas gubernamentales deben dirigirse no a la restricción, sino a la progresividad. Sin embargo, las recientes reformas tienen una intención clara de restringir y no de hacer progresivo el espectro de protección de los derechos.

La abogada, egresada de la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, recuerda un hecho esencial que la hizo orientar su trabajo a la defensa de los derechos humanos: el alzamiento del Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, el 1º de enero de 1994, que coincidió con su ingreso a la universidad, lo cual le ayudó a comprender que las garantías de los pueblos indígenas no se limitaban a prácticas asistencialistas, sino que sus pobladores eran sujetos de derechos.

Su experiencia se inició en una organización tzotzil que trabajaba con artesanas de Chiapas. Posteriormente colaboró con los centros de Reflexión y Acción Laboral y de Derechos Humanos Miguel Agustín Pro Juárez. Después ganó una beca para el programa de derechos humanos de la Universidad de Columbia, en Nueva York, donde intercambió experiencias e ideas con defensores de naciones como República Democrática del Congo, Timor del Este, Filipinas, Ecuador. Esa experiencia la llevó a entender que la violación a los derechos políticos y civiles en estos países, sobre todo los africanos, tenían como origen la vulneración de los derechos humanos.

Con esa idea regresó a México y decidió fundar Prodesc. Leímos la violación de los derechos humanos, principalmente desde el Estado, y no ubicábamos a ese nuevo actor: las trasnacionales, pues en todo el proceso de globalización esas tenían peso importante, no sólo en las definiciones políticas y estratégicas de la integración de los Estados, sino en las definiciones económicas que se traducen en reformas estructurales, como las que hoy vivimos en México.